How To Choose The Right Cat?

It is important to consider the effects a cat will have on the household. Cats do need care and attention. A normal and healthy cat may live for fourteen years or more. You need to consider whether you can stand such a long-term relationship, responsibility and commitment. Before you buy a cat, it is wise to look at your lifestyle, home and so on.

The choice of cat depends very much on personal preference: type of cat, long or short fur, coat colour or pattern etc. But, the most important thing you need to consider is, how much money you can spend.

The Pedegree vs Off The Streets

At the top end of the price scale are cats whose parents and grandparents can be traced through long pedegrees back to the late 1800s. You could have a cat with the aristocratic qualities of its purebred and the resilient of its parents. The showing and breeding of cats with a known ancestry has become a popular hobby. At the end, it was making a much greater range of breeds.

At the other end of scale are unplanned litters of non-pedegreed cats which may be picked up for free. It is perfectly possible to adopt a stray you have found on the streets. Much more cheeper and easy to handle. However, they have been exposed by some infection or diseases. So, it is important to check them at the veterinary centre.

How To Choose The Right Cat?

Longhair vs Shorthair

Having a longhair cat requires you to set aside some time every day to groom. It is to make sure the coat free from tangles and matting. If you are living in a hot weather, a longhaired cat is not a wise choice. Unless you can prepair an air-conditioned home.

If you are allergic to cats, it will probably make no difference. Human allergies to cats are because of the proteins in the scurf or in the dried saliva covering the hair.

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Gender & Age

If you already have a cat in your home, it may be worth going for the opposite sex in your new cat.

If cats are neutered, there is little difference in behavioural term between a male and a female. Male cats are generally larger than females. Male cats are usually bigger than their female equivalents. Although if they have been neutered, they may be a little more indolent.

The largest pedigree variety is the Maine Coon & the smallest is Singapura.

Westley Maclean Theory Of Mediated Communication

Westley Maclean introduced the mediated theory of communication in 1955. Maclean assumes that the process of communication begins when the receiver receives the message. Message is sent from the sender and received by the receiver by means of media.

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Westley MacLean Theory of Mediated Communication Proposes 4 stages/levels in the theory:



  • This level assumes communication occurs with one source only (within the self)
  • Communication in this level can be verbal and/or non verbal
  • No feedback in this level (feedback only happens within the self)

  • X’ is any object/issue within a person’s frame of reference.
  • ‘A’ refers to the individual observing ‘X’
  • refers to the concept of ‘infinity’ (no ending)


  • This level assumes communication occurring between two or more individuals -Communication in this level occurs via face-to- face
  • Individuals interacting in this level can choose any object ‘X’ to discuss about (but the object ‘X’ has to be within both individuals frame of reference/experience)
  • Feedback between the individuals during the interaction is spontaneous (face-to-face communication)


  • X’ is any object/issue within a person’s frame of reference.
  • ‘A’ refers to an individual which chooses what object to communicate with individual B
  • Both individuals (A and B) must be able to see and understand the object (X) which is being discussed
  • Feedback is spontaneous (transactional)


  • This level assumes communication occurring via media or any forms of communication devices
  • Communication devices, in this context refers to telephone, Internet (e-mail), newspapers, television, satellite etc.
  • This is a form of interactive communication
  • Feedback is present in this level, but feedback is delayed


  • ‘C’ refers to media institutions (journalists/producers/media management etc) which chooses what issue (X) to broadcast to society (B)
  • media institutions refers to all categories of media industries: electronic media, print media and new media
  • In this level, media institutions can act as gatekeeper
  • ‘B’ refers to society which receives the news/story about an issue (X) from the media ‘C’
  • ‘B’ is not able to directly see or observe the issue (X), but is being informed about the issue via the media ‘C’
  • ‘B’ is able to provide feedback about the issue (X) to the media ‘C’


  • This level assumes communication occuring via the media and involves more individuals and stages/procedures (complex)
  • In this stage, two groups of individuals (general public and the media) directly observe an object/issue (X) and the media ‘C’ disseminates news/stories about ‘X’ to the general public who are not able to directly observe ‘X’

  • Agenda setting occurs in this level; the media chooses what issue to focus on
  • The media ‘C’ can magnify an issue to capture the attention of the general public examples: – political issues – social issues – health issues – celebrities issues etc

Berlo Theory of Human Communication

David Berlo introduced the SMCR model of communication in 1960. Berlo’s communication is linear, although it touches on human communication. Berlo’s theory focuses on the components needed in each of the four element of communication (SMCR). Berlo was the first communication scholar who treated the five senses as channel of communication .

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Berlo Theory of Human Communication

Berlo introduces 4 levels of communication in his theory: Source, Message, Channel & Receiver.


Source is anyone, or any object (machine) which sends a message (verbal or nonverbal) to another person or to another object. Sumber merangkumi sesiapa sahaja, atau objek (mesin) yang menghantar mesej (secara lisan atau bukan lisan) kepada orang lain atau kepada objek lain.

The source of the message should have:

  • Communication Skills (kebolehan berkomunikasi)
  • Attitudes (pandangan ke atas mesej yang ingin disampaikan)
  • Knowledge (tahap pengetahuan mengenai mesej yang ingin disampaikan)
  • Socio-cultural system (sistem sosio budaya)


According to Berlo, message is comprised of:

  • Code (kode)
  • Content (Kandungan)

CODE – “a set of symbols used to translate a message from one form to another”
Devito, J.A. (2005) Messages: Building Interpersonal Communication Skills (278)


Channel of Communication is comprised of: –

  • Hearing (pendengaran)
  • Smelling (Hidu) -Tasting (merasa)
  • Touching (sentuhan)
  • Seeing (penglihatan) Additional channel of communication (not discussed by Berlo):
  • Air waves (vibration of sound)
  • Copper wires


Receiver of the message should have:

  • Communication Skills (kebolehan berkomunikasi)
  • Attitudes (pandangan ke atas mesej yang ingin disampaikan)
  • Knowledge (tahap pengetahuan mengenai mesej yang ingin disampaikan)
  • Socio-cultural system (sistem sosio-budaya)

The Schramm Model of Communication Theory

Wilbur Schramm introduced a theory on the process of human communication in 1951. He introduced the concept of ‘field of experience’ in human communication. Schramm theory indicates communication and feedback occurs simultaneously. This process is also known as transactional communication.

Schramm Model

Transactional Communication vs. Linear and Interactive Communication

  • Linear (one-way communication) * no feedback
  • Interactive (two way communication) * delay feedback
  • Transactional (two way communication) * spontaneous feedback

Schramm Theory of Human Communication

  • Communication is a process which requires the sender to compose suitable symbols and signs (encoder) to be disseminated to the receiver who will then give meaning to the received message (decoding and interpreting) before sending another message back to the sender (feedback) and the process repeats itself.
  • The sender of the message constructs and conceptualises a message using signs and symbols (encoding)
  • The receiver receives the message either verbally or non-verbally (decoding)
  • The receiver then assign meaning to the message received (interpreting)
  • The receiver then becomes the sender by providing feedback to the message received

Encoder: “the process of translating a message into code” – proses menterjemahkan mesej kepada kode.

Interpreter: “an act of assigning meaning to a code or symbol” – proses memberi makna kepada kode atau simbol

Decoder: “the act of translating from code symbols into ordinary language” Cassell Popular English Dictionary (1995:813). Decoder can be done either manually or by means of technology (decoding machines)

According to Schramm, effective human communication occurs when:

1. The message is understood between sender and receiver

“a message is any symbol or collection of symbols which has meaning or utility” – mesej adalah apa jua simbol atau koleksi simbol yang mempunyai makna atau yang boleh digunakan

“a character or letter accepted as representing or signifying something, idea, relation, process etc” Cassell Popular English Dictionary (1995:832)

“a symbol is anything which is created to refer to something else” Gilchrist, J. (1990)

2. Communication Skills (sender and receiver)

  • choosing the right symbols to communicate
  • combination of verbal and non-verbal communication during interaction. example: ‘peace sign’ expressions of feelings
  • Encoder should focus on the frame of reference of the receiver example: communicating about extreme cold weather

3. Providing Feedback

  • feedback has to be immediate (preferably)
  • feedback is most effective if done face-to- face
  • feedback using media (internet, phone calls, letters etc) is less effective due to delay time factor
  • feedback should be genuine, honest and reliable

4. The level of knowledge of the sender/receiver regarding the message sent/received

  • knowledge about the topic
  • high level of knowledge of sender may have a high level of influence on the receiver
  • knowledge is consistent with the sender/receiver level of experience
  • knowledge is also the result of exposure to the environment

What is Communication?

Communication is The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium. – OxfordDictiniories

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1. “The act of communicating; exchange of ideas, conveyance of information, etc”

(melakukan komunikasi; bertukar idea, menyampaikan informasi dll)

The New International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of the English Language 1999:265

2. Exchange of Ideas “to give or receive in return for something else”

Cassell Popular English Dictionary (1995:281)

  • the amount of ideas exchanged signify communication
  • whether a person is knowledgeable or not
  • whether a person wants to communicate or otherwise
  • depending on the nature of the ideas

3. “Communication is the process of transmitting; a giving, or giving and receiving of information, signals, or messages by talks, gestures, writing, etc.”

(komunikasi adalah proses penyampaian; memberi dan menerima informasi, signal atau mesej melalui perbualan, perbuatan, penulisan dll)

Ruben, B. (1992) Communication and Human Behavior:1

4. “A system of sending and receiving messages, as by telephone, telegraph, radio, etc” (suatu sistem penyampaian dan penerimaan mesej (maklumat) melalui telefon, telegraf, radio dll)

Ruben, B. (1992) Communication and Human Behavior:1

5. “Human communication is the process through which individuals – in relationships, groups, organizations, and societies – respond to and create messages to relate to the environment and one another”

Komunikasi manusia adalah proses di mana individu – dalam perhubungan, kumpulan, organisasi dan masyarakat – bertindak ke atas dan membentuk mesej (maklumat) untuk disesuaikan dengan persekitaran dan di antara satu sama lain

Ruben, B. (1992) Communication and Human Behavior (14)

What is Communication?
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1. Human Communication

  • intrapersonal communication
  • interpersonal communication
  • intercultural communication

2. Group Communication

  • small group communication (2 – 10 people)
  • large group communication (11-30 people)
  • mass group communication (more than 30, less than 200 people)
  • mass communication via media (millions of people)

3. Organizational Communication

  • employers/management to workers/staff
  • from workers/staff to employers/management
  • among peers/subordinates
  • communication via technology (email, phones etc)

4. Animal Communication

  • by means of sounds
  • by means of gestures
  • by means of reward for reinforcement

5. Machine Communication

  • from humans to machines (e.g., computers, fax machines, photocopies etc)
  • from machine to machine (robotics, CAD, CAM, industrial productions)

6. Mediated Communication

  • communication by means of media
  • includes electronic media (radio, TV) and print media (newspapers, magazines, books etc)


1. Intrapersonal Communication

  • communication within oneself
  • disciplines among psychologists and scholars studying children communication – e.g., John E. Aitken, Leonard J. Shedletsky, Don W. Stacks etc etc.

2. Interpersonal Communication

  • communication with two or more individuals
  • conducted by means of media or face-to-face
  • understanding the complexity of human communication

3. Intercultural communication

  • study of human communication between people from different cultural backgrounds
  • focuses on the dynamics of verbal and non- verbal communication in the context of cross-culture
  • important for maintaining diplomatic, political and social relations between nations

4. Organizational communication

  • the study of human communication within an organizational setting
  • interaction between work colleagues (peers), top-down communication, bottom-up communication, communication via technology in the organization, communication across units/departments/ divisions

5. Mass communication

  • the study of communication via electronic media (radio, TV, film) and print media (newspapers, magazines, books etc)
  • focuses on the mass audience, audience characteristics, audience demography, means of disseminating information using the appropriate medium
  • also focuses on international communication using media (satellite, phone, video teleconferencing etc)


1. “communication theories are theories that contain explicit or implicit definition of communication. It contains variables that indicates relationships to explain communication phenomena”

(Narimah Ismail et al. (2007) KOM5111 Module

2. Understanding Communication Theory According to Littlejohn (2002), communication theory functions as a medium to explain and predict a communication phenomena”

(in Akmar Hayati, 2009:39)

3. Understanding Communication Theory “A set of concepts and relationships statements that helps to describe, explain, evaluate, predict and control communication events”

(Cragan & Shields, 1998)


1. Concepts

  • abstraction referencing to a class of thing, a term used at the theoretical level (Salleh Hassan, 2008)
  • the process by which a general idea is derived or an abstraction is generalized is called conceptualization (Salleh Hassan, 2008)

2. Variables

  • variables are phenomenon which are liable to change; capable of varying; susceptible of continuous change of value (Cassell Popular English Dictionary, 1995:912)
  • A variable is a concept, object, or property to which a set of values based on predetermined criteria is assigned.
  • two forms of variables in Communication Studies: Independent Variable and Dependent Variable

Dependent Variable

  • variables which are assumed to depend on or be caused by another (called the independent variable)
  • For example, if you find that income is partly a function of amount of or level of formal education, income is being treated as a dependent variable (Salleh Hassan, 2008)

Independent Variable

  • An independent variable is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable.
  • For example, if we discover that religiosity is partly a function of gender – that is to say women are more religious than men, therefore gender is the independent variable (Salleh Hassan, 2008)


  • Making predictions/assumptions about communication phenomenon
  • Views/observations
  • Opinions
  • Limitations
  • Applications
  • Criticisms
  • Provides an assumption about a communication phenomenon (Salleh, 2005)

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