Awareness For Autism: Spread Love Through Online Campaign

Kuala Lumpur, 23 April 2020 – The Covid19 pandemic has led Malaysians to show more compassion for one another. Autism community requires increasing attention and awareness especially in these challenging times. Universiti Putra Malaysia in collaboration with GENIUS Kurnia, has launched an Autism Awareness campaign by providing several awareness activities in the forms of weekly challenges to commemorate the World Autism Month. Everyone can join in the fun at home from 20 April till 17 May by participating in four weekly challenges. The campaign is aimed to build a consciousness society that cares about autism community through interactive activities that everyone from diverse age and ethnicities can participate together.

The organizers believe that it’s a right time to reach a mass audience to create positive vibes and awareness on autism community as everyone are staying at home safely by strictly following the Movement Control Oder (MCO) due to Covid-19 pandemic. The campaign is officially launched on 20th April,2020.

Public awareness about autism is increasing in the past five years and there are more things we can do to help build the bridge between the community and the public. The Restricted Movement Order (RMO) gives us the opportunity to connect with the autism community in the forms of challenges and story-sharing sessions in the social media platform. Everyone can join in to create an educational platform and to pass time at home.

Associate Professor Dr. Nurul ‘Ain Mohd Hasan (Project Advisor and Communication Lecturer from the Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication, UPM)

“Last year we organized ‘UPM Autism Fun Run’ which was a great experience and the fund collected was awarded to GENIUS Kurnia to help improve the centre’s facilities. This year, as a consequence effort we are doing an online campaign to create awareness and to raise fund for GENIUS Kurnia to enable them to continue providing high quality and excellent education as well as early intervention to the children with autism in order to prepare and train them for the mainstream schools. We believe Malaysians can always find opportunities to help and be involved with the children and families of Autism and thus we are continuing our support this year”, she added.

UPM and GENIUS Kurnia hope to garner more funds from the corporate organizations and individuals in order to continue educate and contribute to the wellbeing of children with autism to make sure they are not abandoned due to their physical disorder.

Associate Professor Dr. Hasnah Toran, Director of GENIUS Kurnia stated that, “We’re glad that UPM has come forward and raise fund via this online Weekly Challenges launched for the wellbeing of our children and their families which mark the second year of collaboration with UPM, following last year’s ‘UPM Autism Fun Run’. We hope more corporate organizations will come forward to help us out by awarding some funds as it would be very much beneficial for our children’s education”.

  • Draw a creative painting or shoot a short video clip on information relevant to Covid-19 or how to stay safe during this crucial time of MCO.
  • Post it in your social media platforms mainly Facebook and Instagram with hashtags #UPM4Autism and #SemarakAutisme #StaySafeAtHome
  • Tag @GeniusKurniaOfficial and @UPM_for_autism in your respective posts

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Full Note: Communication and Decision Making


The process of making choices by identifying a decision, gathering information, and assessing alternative resolutions (

The election of a course of action from two or more alternatives; the decision-making process is a sequence of steps leading to final selection (Henry Sisk and Cliffton Williams)

Decision Making is an important function in management that related to problem. An effective decision-making helps to achieve the desired goals or objectives by solving such problems (


It is a Process

During decision making, it involved process to find out the solution to any problem or for the achievement of a specific result

It is an indicator of commitment

The decision maker must bear the result the decisions

It is the Last Process

Decision making is the last stage of the process because the result of the work is derived from it.

It is Continuous and Dynamic Process

Continuously for routine and special tasks especially in business organization. Dynamic because the situations and circumstances of each decision are different

It is a Measurement of Performance

Decision making can be measurement based on the success or failure of the decisions taken.

It is a Human and Social Process

Because it includes the use of intuition and Justice.

It is a Best Selected Alternative

The best alternative is selected – one or two or more possible alternatives for solving any problem / achieve identified goal.

Decision Making might be Positive or Negative

Positive or negative solution

Rationality, Mental and Intellectual Process

They are based on logical deliberations to make them more rational because the need of intelligence, knowledge, experience, educational level, and mental facilities.


One: Investigate the Situation

A detailed investigation is made on three aspects: define problem identification of objectives and diagnosis.

Determining the problem to be solved.

  • Defining the problem helps to avoid confusing symptoms and problems the next step.
  • At this stage, time and effort should be expanded only in gathering data and information that is relevant to an identification of the real problem.

Decide what would constitute and effective solution.

  • Decision maker should begin to determine which parts of the problem they must and should solve.
  • Most problems consist of several elements, find one solution that will work for all of them.

Determine the actions that will achieve it

  • Formulate hypotheses about the causes.

Two: Develop Alternatives

See things from many viewpoints.

  • Only realistic alternatives should be included in the listing.

Brainstorming may be effective at this stage.

  • This is a group approach to develop and create potential solutions
  • The objective is to generate as many ideas as possible.

Criticism must be prohibited.

  • The leader must keep the discussion moving by asking questions and making statements.

Three: Evaluate Alternatives and Select the Best One

Analyzing and evaluating each alternative in terms of its possible consequences.

Require decision maker to call on every aspect: present knowledge, past experience, foresight and scientific acumen.

For the proper analysis of alternatives, Peter Drucker has suggested the following four (4) criteria:

The risk

  • Every solution naturally carries a risk element.
  • The risk of each course of action must be weighed against the possible gains.

Economy for effort

  • Select the action or solution that gives the greatest results with the least effort.


  • Short notice (urgency) – dramatizes the decision and serves notice on the organization that something important is happening.
  • Plenty of time (long) – consistent effort is needed, a slow start that gathers momentum may be preferable.

Limitations of resources.

  • Also known as the “principle of limiting factor” which is the essence of decision making.
  • The most important resources are the human beings who will carry out the decision.

Four: Implement and Monitor the Decision

Ready to make plans to cope with the requirements and problems. The resources must be acquired and allocated.

The Decision Maker must set up

  • Budgets
  • Schedules
  • Progress reports

Budget, schedules and progress report are all essential to performing the management functions of control.

Potential risks and uncertainties that have been identified during the earlier evaluation of alternatives stage must also be kept in mind. Re-examine the decision at this point and develop detailed plans for dealing with these risks and uncertainties.

Action taken to implement a decision must be monitored.


Using a step-by-step decision-making process can help you make more deliberate, thoughtful decisions by organizing relevant information and defining alternatives. This approach increases the chances that you will choose the most satisfying alternative possible.

Step 1: Identify the decision

This first step is very important. You realize that you need to make a decision.

Clearly the nature of the decision you must make. Set your goal.

Step 2: Gather relevant information

Collect some relevant information before you make your decision:

  • What information is needed,
  • The best sources of information
  • How to get it

Use this term: What, Which, Who, When, How

Internal Information: you’ll seek it through a process of self-assessment.

External Information: you’ll find it online, in books, from other people, and from other sources.

Step 3: Identify the alternatives

As you collect information, you will probably identify several possible actions or alternatives solution to decide.

In this step, you will list all possible and desirable alternatives.

Step 4: Weigh the evidence

Based on your information, try to imagine what it would be like if you carried out each of the alternatives.

You’ll begin to favor certain alternatives: those that seem to have a higher potential for reaching your goal.

Finally, place the alternatives in a priority order.

Step 5: Choose among alternatives

Once you have weighed all the evidence, you are ready to select the alternative that seems to be best one for you. You may even choose a combination of alternatives.

Step 6: Take action

You are now ready to take some positive action. Let’s start to implement the alternative you chose in Step 5.

Step 7: Review your decision & its consequences

Evaluate the results of your decision whether it has resolved the need you identified in Step 1.

If the decision has not met the identified need, you may want to repeat certain steps of the process to make a new decision. For example, you might want to gather more detailed or somewhat different information or explore additional alternatives.


Time Pressures

How much time the decision maker has in which to make the decisions.

Lack of time can force a manager to decide without gathering important facts or exploring possible solutions

Manager’s Values

The Values that determine how we shall act.

  • Manager’s values have a significant influence on the quality of decisions: – likes, dislikes, should, ought, judgments and prejudices.
  • The value orientations of management: – mission, objectives and strategies

Some specific influences which have value on the decision-making process are:

  • Value judgments are necessary in the development of objectives and the assignment of priorities.
  • It is necessary to make value judgments about the various possibilities and
  • Value judgments will be reflected in the alternative chosen.

Organizational Policy

Decisions are limited by the policies that higher managers develop to guide the actions of the organization. Decisions that clearly violated policies will be rejected automatically.

Other Factors

  • The effect of other departments.
  • Higher-management attitude.
  • Personnel required.
  • Budget money.
  • Subordinate reactions.


Rationality in Decision Making

Rationality implies the capacity for objective and intelligent action.

A rational business decision is one which effectively and efficiently assures the achievement of aims for which the means are selected – Steiner

Rationality in decision-making implies that the decision maker tries to maximize the values in a situation by choosing the most suitable course of action for achieving the goal.

Rationality Problems

The end – means or value system approach to rationality is faced with certain problem.

  • The end to be attained is often incompletely or incorrectly stated.
  • In actual practice means cannot be separated completely from ends.
  • The means ends terminology obscures the role of the time- element in decision-making.


Decision making style propose that people differ in two dimensions when they approach decision making.

  • Way of thinking – differs from rational to intuitive
  • Tolerance for ambiguity – differs from a need for consistency and order to the ability to process many thoughts simultaneously.

Decision making style basically depends on managers’ approach to decision making. Decision making can be grouped into four main styles.

One: Directive style – Fast, efficient and logical

  • Decision making style have low tolerance for ambiguity and they are rational in the way they think.
  • This type of leader is very rational but thinks mostly about the short-term.
  • They are very logical, efficient and take quick decisions within a short time.

Two: Analytic style – careful and able to adapt with new situations

  • Managers using analytic decision-making style have high tolerance for ambiguity and rational way of thinking
  • They want more information before deciding and considering more alternatives.
  • Such managers are more careful decision makers as they consider factual and detailed information before taking any decision.
  • They must find answers to many “what if” questions.

Three: Conceptual style – able to fine creative solutions

  • Managers using conceptual decision-making style have high tolerance for ambiguity and have intuitive in their way of thinking.
  • They look at many alternatives.
  • This kind of decision making is for a long term and subjected to changes.

Four: Behavioral style – seek acceptance of decisions

  • Managers using behavioral decision-making style have low tolerance for ambiguity and intuitive in their way of thinking.
  • The manager possesses behavioral style decision-making will engage in team discussion. He is responsive to the mood of the team members.
  • They are concerned about the achievement of subordinates and always take suggestions from others.
  • They organize meetings of subordinate’s time and again to get information and suggestions.
  • They try to avoid conflict. Acceptance by others is important to this decision-making style.

Corporate Identity: Corporate Image vs Corporate Reputation


The corporate reputation refers to the public’s overall estimation of a company’s performance and attributes over time. A corporate reputation is earned through (long-term) consistent performance, reinforced by effective communication.

Since corporate reputation is built over time, it has a relatively more stable and enduring nature than the corporate image.

Whether a company has a positive or negative reputation depends on a number of factors, such as whether the business delivers on its promises, is transparent, trustworthy, and responsive.

It is also largely dependent on the everyday images that people form of an organization.

The important of corporate identity.

  • Ensure that you’re consistent and coherent in all your communication;
  • Allow you to differentiate yourself against your competitors; and
  • Help you engage effectively with customers, employees and investors.

Elements of corporate identity

Culture and personality

  • Vision and Mission
  • values, culture and behavior


  • logo
  • website
  • Social media
  • Packaging and merchandise
  • External corporate communication
  • Office decor, uniforms, vehicles and everything else

Read: Note: 11 Key Concept of Corporate Communication


The corporate image is public perception, and handling that perception is crucial.

The corporate image can generally be described as what comes to the public’s mind when hearing a company’s name or seeing its logo. This corporate image is built by companies through well-conceived communication campaigns.

Public Relations Officer (PRO) protect and promote the corporate identity to create an image in people’s minds. This includes managing negative media stories. So that the public views the company exactly as the company wants to be seen.

Corporate Image VS Corporate Identity

Both the corporate image and corporate reputation reflect how the public perceives a corporation. But even though they are closely related terms, they are not interchangeable.

Definition Corporate Image Corporate Reputation
Refers to The immediate mental picture audiences have of a company The overall value judgement about a company over time
Perception Can be positive, neutral or negative Can be positive, neutral or negative
Steams from Inside an organization Inside and outside an organization
Time frame Can be built quickly Usually evolves over time
Key question “What do we want others to think we are?” “What are we seen to be?”

Note: 11 Key Concept of Corporate Communication

Corporate Communication – A management function that offers a framework for the effective coordination of all internal and external communication with the overall purpose of establishing and maintaining favorable reputations with stakeholder groups upon which the organization is dependent.

It focuses on the organization as a whole and the important task of how an organization is presented to all its both internal and external stakeholder.

Focus on the entire company and entire function of management.

Note: 11 Key Concept of Corporate Communication

Read: Groupthink Psychology 1984 – Full Note


One: Mission

Overriding purpose in line with the values or expectations of stakeholders.

Often refer to with the simple question – What business are we in?

A general expression of the overriding purpose of the organization.

Two: Vision

Desired future state: the aspiration of the organization.

It is an aspirational view of the general direction that the organization wants to go in

Formulated by senior management and requires the energies and commitment of members of the organization.

Three: Objectives

Statement of overall aims in line with the overall purpose.

The more short-term statements of direction – in line with the formulated vision. Which are to be achieved by strategic initiatives or strategies.

Four: Strategies

The ways in which the corporate objectives are to be achieved.

Involved an action and communications that are linked to objectives.

Often specified in term of organizational function (eg: Finance, Operations, Human Resources etc)

Five: Corporate Identity

The profile and values communicated by an organization.

The bacis profile that an organization wants to project to all its important stakeholder.

The basic profile that an organization aims to be known by various groups especially its stakeholder in terms of its corporate image and reputation

Six: Corporate Image

The immediate set of associations of an individual in response to one or more signals or messages from or about an organization at a single point in time

Seven: Corporate Reputation

An individual’s collective representation of past images of an organization (induced through either communication or past experiences) establish over time.

Eight: Stakeholder

Any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization’s objectives

Nine: Market

A defines group for whom a product is or may be demand

Ten: Communication

The tactics and media that are used to communicate with internal dan external groups

Eleven : Integration

The act of coordinating all communication so that the corporate identity is effectively and consistently communicated to internal and external groups

Groupthink Psychology 1984 – Full Note

Since a beginning of human history, people have made decisions in groups – (Cass Sunstein and Reid Hastie, 2015)

How GROUPTHINK occur? Think about the last time you were part of a group, perhaps during a school project. Imagine that someone proposes an idea that you think is quite poor. However, everyone else in the group agrees with the person who suggested the idea and the group seem set on pursuing that course of action. Do you voice your dissent or do you just go along with the majority opinion?

In many cases, people end up engaging in groupthink when they fear that their objections might disrupt the harmony of the group or suspect that their ideas might cause other members to reject them.



The term “Groupthink” was coined in 1972 by a social psychologist, Irving Janis, to learn how group decisions are made and how group decisions could be successful or a failure. He made his conclusions based on studies on American Soldier Project and U.S. foreign policy decisions, which included the

  • Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor of 1941
  • The Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961
  • The beginning of Vietnam Wars (1964 to 1967).

He concluded that in all these events, the decisions were made through groupthink. The theory is not only applicable to political decisions but also in any other decision making and communication processes.

To understand the nature of decision making in small groups, Irving Janis in his book Victims of Groupthink (1972), explains what takes place in groups where group members are highly agreeable with one another.

Definition: A way of group deliberation that minimizes conflict and emphasizes the need for unanimity.

Read: Everything You Need – Social Penetration Theory


Janis identified eight different “symptoms” that indicate groupthink:

  1. Illusion of invulnerability – This is related to extremism which encourages people to take bigger risks.
  2. Collective rationalization – Thinking of one person as correct confidently reduces rational thinking of all.
  3. Belief in inherent morality – When people think they are doing something moral, they do not consider morality of the process as well as consequences.
  4. Stereotyped views of out-groups – Out-groups are viewed as enemies and their views are always taken as negative and are ignored.
  5. Direct pressure on dissenters – All members of a group have a feeling of group feeling. They think that if they put forward any views different from other members, it can cause conflicts.
  6. Self-censorship – People censor their own feelings and its communication to avoid conflicts and disagreements.
  7. Illusion of unanimity – Group members think that they believe in the same cause and therefore in all the decisions related to the cause, which builds a false sense of unanimity.
  8. Self-appointed ‘mind-guards’ – Mind guards itself from conflicting situations which makes people remain far from contradictory thoughts, actions and communications.

Read: Condolences – Contoh Ucapan Takziah in English


Groupthink can have some benefits. When working with a large number of people, it often allows the group to make decisions, complete tasks, and finish projects quickly and efficiently.

However, this phenomenon also has costs as well. The suppression of individual opinions and creative thought can lead to poor decision-making and inefficient problem-solving.

  • Negative outcomes are common by groupthink.
  • Leaders get more power due to groupthink.
  • Dissatisfaction occurs within groups due to failure.
  • It discourages critical evaluation.
  • It also does not promote people from taking initiatives.
  • Ideas become stale by same kind of decisions.
  • Risks are not thought about.
  • Alternatives which can be better is ignored.


Janis suggested that groupthink tends to be the most prevalent in conditions where there is a high degree of cohesiveness, situational factors that contribute to deferring to the group (such as external threats, moral problems, difficult decisions), and structural issues (such as impartial leadership and group isolation).

First: Group Cohesiveness

Cohesion differs from on group to another. Different level of cohesion produces different results. In some group, cohesion can lead to positive feelings about the group experience and the other group members.

Despite the apparent advantages, highly cohesive groups may also bring about a troubling occurrence. Cohesiveness is a necessary ingredient if groups or team to arrive at thoughtful, inclusive and informed decisions.

Two: Structural Factors

Janis noted that specific structural characteristics or faults promote groupthink:-

  • Group Insulation
  • Lack of Impartial Leadership
  • Lack of Decision-Making Procedures

Three: Group Stress


To avoid Groupthink, it is important to have a process in place for checking the fundamental assumptions behind important decisions, for validating the decision-making process, and for evaluating the risks involved. It is important to explore objectives and alternatives, encourage challenging of ideas, have back –up plans, etc. If needed gather data and ideas from outside sources and evaluate them objectively.

There are steps that groups can take to minimize this problem. First, leaders can give group members the opportunity to express their own ideas or argue against ideas that have already been proposed. Breaking up members into smaller independent teams can also be helpful.

According to Janis, decision-making groups are not necessarily destined to groupthink. He devised ways of preventing groupthink:

  1. Leaders should assign each member the role of “critical evaluator”. This allows each member to freely air objections and doubts.
  2. Leaders should not express an opinion when assigning a task to a group.
  3. Leaders should absent themselves from many of the group meetings to avoid excessively influencing the outcome.
  4. The organization should set up several independent groups, working on the same problem.
  5. All effective alternatives should be examined.
  6. Each member should discuss the group’s ideas with trusted people outside of the group.
  7. The group should invite outside experts into meetings. Group members should be allowed to discuss with and question the outside experts.
  8. At least one group member should be assigned the role of Devil’s advocate. This should be a different person for each meeting.

By following these guidelines, groupthink can be avoided.

Tools That Help You Avoid Groupthink

  1. Brainstorming – Helps ideas flow freely without criticism.
  2. Six Thinking Hats – Helps the team look at a problem from many different perspectives, allowing people to play “Devil’s Advocate”.
  3. Risk Analysis – Ensures that the consequences of a decision are thoroughly explored.
  4. Impact Analysis – Helps people check and validate the individual steps of a decision-making process.


However, if Groupthink does set in, it’s important that you recognize and acknowledge it quickly, so that you can overcome it and quickly get back to functioning effectively.

Follow these steps to do this:

  1. Even with good group decision-making processes in place, be on the lookout for signs of Groupthink, so you can deal with them swiftly.
  2. If there are signs of Groupthink, discuss these in the group. Once acknowledged, the group as a whole can consciously free up its decision making.
  3. Assess the immediate risks of any decision, and the consequences for the group and its customers. If risks are high (for example risk of personal safety), make sure you take steps to fully validate any decision before it is ratified.
  4. If appropriate, seek external validation, get more information from outside, and test assumptions. Use the bullets above as a starting point in diagnosing things that needs to change.
  5. Introduce formal group techniques and decision-making tools, such as the ones listed above, to avoid Groupthink in the future.


Janis had studied the Bay of Pigs Invasion fiasco of 1961 before making the theory of group think.

The Bay of Pigs invasion failed, according to Janis, due to the Kennedy government making a group decision to support the exiled Cuban political party led by Fidel Castro, which was overthrown in 1960, to invade Cuba again with the help of CIA.

The invasion failed ultimately. Kennedy had decided on that because of his group of advisor’s who did not advice anything against his wrong decisions as Kennedy was making good decisions on other things related to the U.S. government. Kennedy had asked the advisors to vote for or against the decision.

All the group members believed in Kennedy’s decision and did not use their own rationality even though the invasion did not have any probability of success.

The same thing happens in all small situations like a group of students deciding on an academic group project, a team of football players during a match, a board of directors of a company deciding on the future of company, etc. When people do not communicate what they have to for betterment of anything, the communication fails and group cohesiveness might also not remain intact.


Read: Note: Cultivation Theory For Dummies

The attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, is a prime example of groupthink.

A number of factors such as shared illusions and rationalizations contributed to the lack of precaution taken by U.S. Navy officers based in Hawaii. The United States had intercepted Japanese messages and they discovered that Japan was arming itself for an offensive attack somewhere in the Pacific Ocean.

Washington took action by warning officers stationed at Pearl Harbor, but their warning was not taken seriously. They assumed that the Empire of Japan was taking measures in the event that their embassies and consulates in enemy territories were usurped.

The U.S. Navy and Army in Pearl Harbor also shared rationalizations about why an attack was unlikely. Some of them included

  • “The Japanese would never dare attempt a full-scale surprise assault against Hawaii because they would realize that it would precipitate an all-out war, which the United States would surely win.”
  • “The Pacific Fleet concentrated at Pearl Harbor was a major deterrent against air or naval attack.”
  • “Even if the Japanese were foolhardy to send their carriers to attack us [the United States], we could certainly detect and destroy them in plenty of time.”
  • “No warships anchored in the shallow water of Pearl Harbor could ever be sunk by torpedo bombs launched from enemy aircraft.”


Groupthink can severely undermine the value of a group’s work and, at its worst, it can cost people their lives.

On a lesser scale, it can stifle teamwork, and leave all but the most vocal team members disillusioned and dissatisfied. If you’re on a team that makes a decision you don’t really support but you feel you can’t say or do anything about it, your enthusiasm will quickly fade.

Teams are capable of being much more effective than individuals but, when Groupthink sets in, the opposite can be true. By creating a healthy group-working environment, you can help ensure that the group makes good decisions, and manages any associated risks appropriately.